Ethical challenges of Telemedicine & Telehealth

Telemedicine/ Telehealth. ” Ethical challenges of Telemedicine & Telehealth. Suggested Thesis/Research Project Format and Proposal Content

 The following information outlines a thesis/research project format to follow in preparing the thesis/research project document.  Additionally, review the thesis/dissertation guidelines in the APA Style Manual for additional guidelines on format and style.  Usually the first three chapters of the thesis/research project outline as the format for preparing the proposal (see APA Manual Chapter 5, p.283 for guidance on manuscript preparation).  The chapters may be prepared using present tense if approved.  The proposal will be presented to your thesis/research project committee for review, comment, suggestions and finally, approval. 

To avoid complications, do not rely on other theses, research projects or dissertations to format your documents because formatting requirements change over time and you may be copying mistakes.  Avoid plagiarism in the thesis/research project by following the following guidelines.  Use only your own words and ideas in writing.  This takes practice and time in order to improve your writing. Always give credit for copied, adapted, paraphrased or copyrighted material by using quotation marks and cite the source.  You do not have to cite common knowledge but check with your chair on when citations are not required.  Please see the Program Resources course in Blackboard for links about writing and plagiarism.


    Only approved font types are allowed
•    Arial, Times New Roman, Courier New, Geneva
•    12 point font size is required

•    1.0” top, right, and bottom
•    1.5” left
    Page numbering
•    All page numbers should stand alone without punctuation
•    Page numbers must be centered 1” from the bottom of the page
•    The Committee Approval Page is neither numbers or counted. 
•    The Title Page is understood to be page Roman numeral “i”, although the number does not appear on the page.
•    Preliminary pages, such as dedication, copyright, acknowledgement, abstract, table of contents, are numbered in small Roman numerals beginning with “ii”.
•    Pages in the body of the thesis/research project are numbered in Arabic numerals.
    Spacing requirements
•    Double space throughout the manuscript unless APA formatting requires single spacing
•    Triple space before and after all tables and figures within the text

Manuscript Format
Title Page

    The abstract should show the reader the context and content of the work and should include the purpose of the work, including any hypothesis to be tested or major questions asked, the major findings and conclusions.  Would another researcher know what you did, how you did it and conclusions you found? The abstract should not include headings or parenthetical citations.  The abstract should be 150 words or less, double-spaced and should be the last part of the manuscript that is written.

Table of Contents

List of Tables (by table # and title)

List of Figures

Main Body
Chapter 1-  Introduction

    Statement of the Problem

        Introduction – 2-3 paragraphs or no more than 1 1/2 pages, general statement of situation.

        Background of the Problem – brief discussion of how problem evolved, last paragraph should leave reader with a conclusion or summary statement which makes logical sense as to why you would be conducting this study, helps you to lead right into purpose of study.

        Purpose of Study – usually no more than a paragraph, which very concisely indicates the purpose of the study.  Have you stated a clear question?

        Significance of Study – brief paragraph, 2 or 3, which states why your study is important to profession, literature, etc.  Does the study have a significant problem to focus on?

        Conceptual Frame of Reference (Theoretical Framework) – brief statement, if appropriate, which discusses that the study is based on work of…. or study will attempt to support/prove/confirm a model, etc.

        Research Questions – Specific questions you want to answer through study.  These questions should be written with an idea of how you will analyze data, what statistical tests you plan to use.  Makes writing the questions and data analysis section easier.  If doing an experiment may use hypothesis instead of research questions.  If doing an evaluation study may use objectives.

        Definition of Terms – list of terms and how you define them for your study.  Helps clarifies what you are talking about.

        Limitations – states concerns that might limit generalizability of the study and other methodology, validity, bias issues that might arise, any limitations due to resources or access to sample, population.  What might not be or happen in scope of study. 

Chapter 2- Review of Literature

    Review of the Literature – begins with a brief overview of purpose of chapter and what reader will find, i.e., how you went about identifying the literature, how many sections in the review, what each subpart will cover, etc.  Should be well subdivided, takes reader through history, background, current literature on subject under study.  Review should relate to questions/objectives or hypotheses of study as well.  End chapter with a brief summary that indicates what the literature has said about your area of investigation.  The review of the literature should show why you have a legitimate, significant problem/question.

Chapter 3- Methodology

    Methodology – begins with a brief paragraph of what reader will find in chapter.

        Research Design – statement as to type of research design used and any explanatory statements you want to make in regard to design.

        Population and Sample Design – explain your population and how you arrived at sample if sample is used.

        Data Collection Procedures – steps taken related to how data was collected, mail surveys, timeline, follow-ups, etc.

        Data Collection Instrument – describe in detailed how instrument was developed, designed, what it is comprised of, variables, pilot or field tested, etc.

        Data Analysis – brief paragraph of what will follow.

            Response Rate – describes your response rate

            Representativeness of Sample – describes what tests will be used to determine generalizability of study, if appropriate.

            Profile of Sample or Population – discusses stats that will be used to describe population or sample

            Reliability of Scales in Instrument – if appropriate to type of study conducted, will discuss stats used to test reliability of scale(s)

            Research Questions – discusses stats that will be used to analyze each of the research questions

            Level of Significance – tell reader a priori what level of significance you plan to use

        Summary of Chapter

Chapter 4- Results

    Results – brief introduction into what chapter is going to cover.  This chapter will include statistical tables.

        Response Rate of Sample/Population – describes response rate.

        Representativeness of Sample – discusses results of tests or procedures used to get at generalizability of study.

        Profile of Sample/Population – presents results of stats used to describe sample or population.

        Reliability of Instrument – results of statistical tests or procedures to determine reliability of scale if appropriate.

        Research Questions – presents results of statistical analyses for each of the research questions.

    Summary of Chapter


Chapter 5- Conclusions and Recommendations

    Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations – brief overview of what chapter will cover including why and how you conducted the study.

        Summary of Findings – synopsis of study results, more descriptive in nature, in essence summarizes Chapter 4 results but in layman’s terms.

        Conclusions – discusses the study results in terms of what was found, relates to each question, ties in literature review, compares results with what others may have found in previous studies, etc.

        Implications of Study – discusses significance of results in terms of their importance.

        Recommendations – based on study results, findings and conclusions, recommendations are suggested for future study.  Does this research create questions for future study, if so, what additional research could or should be done.

List of Reference

Appendices  (are labeled A,B,C, etc.)

Appreciation and acknowledgement is given to Dr. Melanie Brodnik, Director, Health Information Management and Systems Division, The Ohio State University from which this document was modified to develop these following guidelines.

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