Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
heart disease remains the No. 1 killer in America; nearly half of all Americans have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoke—some of the leading risk factors for heart disease.
—Murphy et al., 2018
Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today. NURS 6521 week 2 Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders.
As an advanced practice nurse, you are responsible for recommending appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.
Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm NURS 6521 week 2 Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
By Day 7 of Week 2
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The School of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
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Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Pharmacokinetics refers to the processes that a drug undergoes in the body after being administered. This includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. On the other hand, pharmacodynamics refers to the effects that medications have on the body, such as side effects. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are affected by variables such as a patient’s medical history, concurrent medications, and patient characteristics such as age and gender. According to the case study, patient CB’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are altered by the patient’s medical history and current medications. Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders is the 2nd week’s assignment for NURS 6521.
Numerous comorbidities frequently complicate the treatment of cardiovascular disease patients. These require different medications with distinct sensitivities and adverse effects. In addition, these reactions are typically not homogeneous across all patients. Therefore, continuous patient monitoring is necessary to prevent harmful medication responses (Mangoni & Jarmuzewska, 2019). CB has a history of stroke and is currently afflicted with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. All of these factors have a substantial impact on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Diabetes, for instance, increases the mycobacterial burden in a subset of patients, which impacts treatment (Alfarisi et al., 2018). In addition, people with diabetes mellitus have trouble excreting toxins from the kidney, which increases their chance of developing diabetic nephropathy, which may further complicate their treatment.
However, the patient is taking Glipizide 10 mg, which helps prevent kidney injury. Since patient CB is diabetic and taking many medications, it is simple for toxins to collect in the body. Another significant disease that influences pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is hypertension. Since patient CB is afflicted, it is vital to analyze the condition’s impacts and the significance of pharmacological interventions (Oparil & Schmieder, 2015). For instance, the patient is taking 180 mg of Verapamil each day, which helps to decrease blood pressure and avoid stroke (Mancia et al., 2014). Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders is the 2nd week’s assignment for NURS 6521. However, the medicine has negative consequences on the patient’s body. It may induce severe liver damage and headaches, nausea, and vomiting. It also decreases the cardiac rate. Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Conditions – NURS 6521 Week 2 Assignment
It is vital to consider those mentioned above adverse pharmacological effects when treating the patient. The patient is also taking 25 mg of Hydralazine, which is used to treat excessive blood pressure. The pharmacodynamics of this medicine are opposite to those of Verapamil 180 mg. This increases the patient’s heart rate, whereas Verapamil 180 mg decreases the pulse (Flynn, Bradford, & Harvey, 2016). Such adverse effects may be fatal to the patient; consequently, it is unwise to combine such medications. Another problem influencing patient CB is hyperlipidemia, which plays a crucial role in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Hyperlipidemia is characterized by elevated lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol) in the patient’s blood. These lipids are accumulated along blood vessels, so inhibiting blood flow.
High blood lipid levels put the patient at risk for a stroke or myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack (Navar-Boggan et al., 2015). The patient is taking 80 mg of Simvastatin to address the problem. However, this medication has adverse effects on diabetic people. Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders is the 2nd week’s assignment for NURS 6521. Therefore, administering Simvastatin 80 mg to patient CB poses a concern because he also has type 2 diabetes mellitus. When prescribing medications to patients with cardiovascular disease, the prescribing physician must pay great attention to all relevant factors to prevent adverse drug responses. Due to comorbidities, Patient CB’s illnesses complicate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders is the 2nd week’s assignment for NURS 6521. Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Conditions – NURS 6521 Week 2 Assignment
Alfarisi, O., Mave, V., Gaikwad, S., Sahasrabudhe, T., Ramachandran, G., Kumar, H., … & Raskar, S. (2018). Effect of diabetes mellitus on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tuberculosis treatment. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 62(11), 1-14.
Flynn, J. T., Bradford, M. C., & Harvey, E. M. (2016). Intravenous Hydralazine in hospitalized children and adolescents with hypertension. The Journal of Pediatrics, 168, 88-92. NURS 6521 week 2 Assignment: Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Mancia, G., Fagard, R., Narkiewicz, K., Redon, J., Zanchetti, A., Böhm, M., … & Galderisi, M. (2014). 2013 ESH/ESC Practice guidelines for managing arterial hypertension: ESH-ESC: The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Blood Pressure, 23(1), 3-16.
Mangoni, A. A., & Jarmuzewska, E. A. (2019). The influence of heart failure on the pharmacokinetics of cardiovascular and non‐cardiovascular drugs: A critical appraisal of the evidence. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 85(1), 20-36.
Navar-Boggan, A. M., Peterson, E. D., D’Agostino Sr, R. B., Neely, B., Sniderman, A. D., & Pencina, M. J. (2015). Hyperlipidemia in early adulthood increases the long-term risk of coronary heart disease. Circulation, 131(5), 451-458.
Oparil, S., & Schmieder, R. E. (2015). New approaches in the treatment of hypertension. Circulation Research, 116(6), 1074-1095.
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