NURS 6512 Week 3 Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:
Case Study Assignment: Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case
The discussion of the assessment tool will be on the case study about a 5-year-old boy, with parents who are overweight but working fulltime. The child spends time with the grandmother after school. Obesity among children is a major public health concern globally. Childhood obesity is associated with chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases and some types, increased healthcare costs, reduced quality of life, and negative body image (Mazidi et al., 2018). Family dynamics play a key role in childhood obesity such as lack of physical activities, sedentary lifestyle, and food consumption patterns (Gray et al., 2018). For example, a child having overweight parents are likely to be overweight since the parent prepare and provide food for the children. Nurse practitioners (NP) need to have the skills to discuss sensitive issues like overweight and obesity with patients and their families holistically. In the provided scenario, the NP should ask family-centered questions, carry out a complete health history, and conduct a physical exam to examine the potential and actual risk for the patient.
The NP will need to ask about the eating patterns and types of food consumed by the family. This is because high-calorie foods such as fatty foods and sweetened beverages are associated with weight gain while a high intake of fruits and vegetables is highly recommended. Therefore, asking about the types of food eaten in the family will inform if food could be a contributing factor to the boy’s overweight (Gray et al., 2018). Moreover, it will be necessary to ask about physical activities and how the child spends his free time. A sedentary lifestyle among children that includes watching TV and playing computer games, without outdoor activities is a major contributing factor to childhood obesity (Mazidi et al., 2018). The NP should also enquire about the socioeconomic status of the family because children from families that are socioeconomically disadvantaged are likely to develop obesity. It will also be necessary to enquire about any other health problem the child may be having because obesity and overweight are associated with diseases like diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. Finally, obesity and overweight can affect the self-esteem and emotional wellbeing of a child and thus the NP should enquire if the child has any emotional problems.
Any Risks and Further Information
According to Mazidi et al (2018), risks associated with obesity include high cholesterol and high blood pressure, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease; diabetes; breathing problems like sleep apnea and asthma; joint problems, and gastro-esophageal reflux. Additionally, obesity in children may lead to psychological problems like depression and anxiety; reduced quality of life and low self-esteem; and social problems like stigma and bullying (Sahoo et al., 2015). Therefore, the NP should enquire if the boy has any health problems or if he encounters psychological problems or mistreatment and victimization at school or with his peers. The nurse should create a safe environment and ensure privacy throughout the interview. The NP should ask open-ended questions to help the child to open up and also allow the NP to assess the child’s cognition. The caregiver should be included in the conversations to ensure that the correct health history of the boy is captured (Avis et al., 2015). The NP should use nonjudgmental language throughout the interview and avoid labeling the boy by the condition. The NP should also use motivational interviewing and integrate open-ended questions to facilitate positive behavior change and help the boy open up about his feelings (Amir et al., 2018).
Strategies to Encourage Parents/Caregivers to be Proactive about the Child’s Health and Weight
The first strategy is to encourage the parents and caregivers to develop a daily meal and snack times and ensure that they eat together with the child. The focus should be on good health where the parents should be encouraged to focus on buying and providing healthy foods such as fruits instead of snacks (Avis et al., 2015). The parents and the caregiver should model positive behaviors such as eating healthy foods and avoiding snacks and sweetened beverages. This will help the boy to develop healthy eating behaviors.
Secondly, the caregivers and parents should ensure the boy is physically active and engages in outdoor activities such as playing soccer with peers and cycling instead of spending time watching television and playing phone or computer games (Avis et al., 2015).
Childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Since family dynamics play an important role in childhood obesity, it is necessary to involve caregivers and parents in the treatment plan. Obesity is a sensitive issue and thus the nurse should ensure that the interview approach is sensitive and use open-ended questions to encourage the child to talk freely.
Avis, J. L., Cave, A. L., Donaldson, S., Ellendt, C., Holt, N. L., Jelinski, S., Martz, P., Maximova, K., Padwal, R., Wild, T. C., & Ball, G. D. (2015). Working with Parents to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Protocol for a Primary Care-Based eHealth Study. JMIR research protocols, 4(1), e35. https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.4147.
Amiri, P., Kazemian, E., Mansouri-Tehrani, M. M., Khalili, A., & Amouzegar, A. (2018). Does motivational interviewing improve the weight management process in adolescents? Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic reviews, 7(1), 178.
Gray, L. A., Alava, M. H., Kelly, M. P., & Campbell, M. J. (2018). Family lifestyle dynamics and childhood obesity: evidence from the millennium cohort study. BMC public health, 18(1), 500.
Mazidi, M., Banach, M., Kengne, A. P., & Lipid and Blood Pressure Meta-Analysis Collaboration Group (2018). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of medical science: AMS, 14(6), 1185–1203. https://doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2018.79001.
Sahoo, K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, A. K., Sofi, N. Y., Kumar, R., & Bhadoria, A. S. (2015). Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 4(2), 187–192. https://doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.154628.
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