NR537 Discussion Questions

NR537 Discussion

Module 1: Existential Therapy

Complete a lifestyle assessment (various types are available online) on yourself and construct a case conceptualization showing how your personality and several of your specific issues might be viewed and worked with from an existential perspective.

Module 2: Gestalt Therapy

Discuss your understanding of Gestalt counseling. Include a specific population that you desire to work with in the future. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using Gestalt counseling with the chosen population. Focus on the following as it relates to the specific populations: (a) culture, (b) ethnicity, (c) sexual identity and/or orientation, (d) belief system, (e) potential of diagnosis if applicable, and (f) any potential ethical concerns.

Module 3: Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy

DDP has been criticized for the lack of a comprehensive manual or full case studies to provide details of the process. In addition, although non-verbal communication, communicative mismatch and repair, playful interactions and the relationship between the parent’s attachment status and that of a toddler are all well documented and important for early healthy emotional development, Hughes and Becker-Weidman are described as making “a real logical jump” in assuming that the same events can be deliberately recapitulated in order to correct the emotional condition of an older child.

Based on the readings in this unit, do you share the same criticism? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Module 4: Relational Cultural Therapy

Explore your reactions to the readings and to what you have learned about RCT. Discuss in what ways the readings have changed your ideas about the therapeutic relationship. Explain how RCT can be applied to your own life. 

Module 5: Transtheoretical Model of Change and Motivational Interviewing

Explore your reactions to the readings and to what you have learned about Motivational Interviewing (MI).  Explain how MI can be applied to clinical practice.

Module 6: Brain Stimulation Therapy

Up to this point, we have discussed various types of psychotherapy modalities. Explore your reactions to the readings and to what you have learned about the various brain stimulation modalities discussed in this unit. Are you in favor of or opposed to these modalities? Provide rationale. There has been recently increased interest in do-it-yourself brain stimulation as a means of improving cognitive ability (Lumosity). Explain your opinion regarding do-it-yourself brain stimulation.

Module 7: Family Prevention Interventions and Theory

Identify a family you know well. Do not provide the name of the family or any other identifiers regarding your relationship. Discuss interventions for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention that are appropriate for the family identified. Then choose an appropriate theory discussed this week that would be most effective for a family nurse to integrate into meeting the health care needs of that family and explain.

Module 8: Genogram

Draw a genogram. You may use your family or a patient’s family (from clinical). You may draw a genogram and scan the document into the discussion or create a genogram in Word and attach the file. No APA citations are required for this post.

Module 9: Integrating the Health Belief or Health Promotion Model

Discuss how you would integrate either the Health Belief Model or Health Promotion Model in meeting the health care needs of a family. Be specific.

Module 10: Attachment Theory

Go to the search engine, Google, and type in the box: attachment theory + (pick a mental disorder). For example, you can type attachment theory + eating disorders. Search evidence-based articles and then describe the disorder from an attachment point of view.

Module 11: Neuroimaging

Describe various neuroimaging techniques and their relative advantages and disadvantages.

Module 12:  Psychoeducation in Mental Health

Although psychoeducational programs for patients with mental disorders and their families can significantly reduce relapse rates, few patients are offered a psychoeducational program in routine clinical treatment. Providers often find the implementation of routine psychoeducation difficult due to a lack of experience, training, and time. For this discussion, explain how you can include psychoeducation into your treatment plan when providing routine care to your patients.  List the critical ingredients of psychoeducation and discuss the benefits of your selections.

Sample  Solution NR537 Discussion Questions

Response to Discussion Questions

Module 1:

Hello, my name is Carol. Carol exhibits signs of social and generalized anxiety. Carol claims that starting a new work at a grocery shop recently served as a catalyst. She worries and is anxious about her work because she fears making mistakes and her stress levels. Because of her avoidant personality or attachment type, Carol avoids meaningful connections with others. She is connected with one buddy but has never experienced romantic love. When with other people, she tends to withdraw out of dread of being judged harshly. Her limited social network and self-perception as an incompetent employee further contribute to her isolation.
Her compassion and ability to channel her emotions via music and art are two of her strongest defenses. She is a diligent worker who wants to improve and is cooperative in the therapy setting. She has a supportive buddy at school, easy access to university counseling services, a strong desire to participate in therapy, and medical coverage all work in her favor. I explained my anxiety symptoms and avoidant lifestyle characteristics regarding biopsychosocial variables. Because of my father’s history of anxiety, she has difficulty being assertive, forming healthy relationships, and not taking responsibility for her actions (which leads to a vicious cycle of self-criticism and self-harm).
She suffers from social anxiety and has a successful and critical mom; therefore, she doesn’t have many friends (Shlomowitz & Feher, 2014). In part, Carol’s inability to effectively deal with stress stems from the fact that she was born into a life of affluence and opportunity, as a result of which she feels entitled to follow a relatively stress-free course of action. Her therapy will consist of psychoeducational instruction in assertiveness, relationship, and self-shooting skills and fostering a supportive, motivating, and empathetic therapeutic alliance. In-session practice, role-playing, and modeling will put the skills to use in meaningful ways. She will be sent to a therapy group at the university counseling center to work on her interaction skills and interpersonal habits, as they are identified as areas of difficulty.
Thought screening, self-monitoring and questioning, the downward arrow methods, and mindfulness practice are all effective ways to combat the harmful effects of negative self-talk, such as anxiety and the avoidance of social situations. My treatment drive, strengths, and defensive elements are all associated with treatment alternatives; therefore, I should have favorable outcomes from therapy.

Module 2:

Individual experience in the here and now and personal agency are emphasized in the humanistic and existential counseling method known as gestalt therapy. The therapist’s ability to be open, honest, and present with the client is central to Gestalt therapy. Gestalt therapy can be helpful to a wide range of people. In addition to being sensitive to potential ethical issues, therapists should also strive to create a welcoming and accepting environment for their patients. When I grow up, I want to be a therapist who specializes in helping people overcome mental health issues like anxiety, depression, and trauma.
One theory suggests that clients who have suffered trauma can benefit from Gestalt therapy because the approach emphasizes the client’s immediate experience and can lead to greater self-awareness. Two additional benefits of Gestalt therapy are a positive outlook and learning to make decisions that align with goals and values. When working with clients who have experienced trauma, it is essential to consider several possible ethical concerns. Because of their susceptibility to re-traumatization, it is crucial that these patients feel safe and secure during therapy.
Gestalt therapy can be helpful for people dealing with issues like depression, anxiety, and trauma. Clients can benefit from gestalt therapy by increasing their self-awareness and realizing the interconnectedness of their feelings, thoughts, and actions. With this knowledge in hand, clients are better able to make the kinds of changes that can improve their lives and the outcomes they experience (Wollants, 2012). Clients having trouble with issues about their culture, ethnic background, gender orientation or perception, beliefs, or potential diagnosis may also benefit from Gestalt counseling.
While there are many benefits to using Gestalt therapy with clients, there are also some potential drawbacks. Those not accustomed to talking freely about their emotions may find it difficult to participate in Gestalt therapy. Clients who aren’t accustomed to introspection may also find this method difficult. Furthermore, it may be challenging to use Gestalt counseling with clients with strongly divergent worldviews or cultural backgrounds. When deciding whether or not to use Gestalt counseling with a specific population, it’s crucial to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. Consider any ethical considerations that may come up as well.

Module 3:

DDP is a form of talk therapy developed specifically to aid in the improvement of a kid’s emotional well-being. The treatment is premised on the idea that a younger child’s emotional condition may be improved by having them recreate the same events that occur naturally throughout early childhood development. Investigating this further has led me to conclude that this criticism is well-founded. DDP is a promising therapeutic approach, but additional research is needed to confirm its benefits. I find it challenging to know how to effectively implement the treatment
without a comprehensive manual or complete case studies to serve as examples.
The DDP doesn’t come with a comprehensive instruction manual or full case studies to demonstrate the method is a valid criticism, and I agree with it (Turner-Halliday et al., 2014). The foundation of the DDP hypothesis is that healthy attachment relationships in infancy and early childhood are fundamental to developing a solid sense of identity and maintaining emotional health throughout adulthood. However, there is little evidence to suggest that re-creating early emotional ties with an older kid with a fragile sense of self and emotional disorders will have the same impact. This is because studies have shown that older youngsters cannot positively influence their younger peers.
Hughes and Becker-Weidman make a “logical leap” by speculating that a child’s early memories can be relived on purpose to mend the child’s damaged emotional development. Hughes and Becker-Weidman believe that a child’s emotional condition may be improved by having them relive the same experiences. That’s a fair point of critique, in my opinion, as it’s impossible to know how a young child’s experiences would affect them years later. In my opinion, it is also crucial to consider that an older kid is more likely to comprehend and digest the events that occur during therapy, which may increase the efficacy of the treatment. To sum up, I agree with the naysayers about DDP. There is very little data to back up the theory’s flimsy assumptions.

Module 4:

Relational Culture Therapy focuses on the client’s interpersonal connections as a means to emotional health and recovery. It’s predicated on the belief that we can’t achieve a state of stable emotional well-being on our own and that we need the support of others around us. One of the fascinating aspects of this therapy method is its potential to aid trauma survivors (Walker & Rosen, 2004). Taking this tack can aid in the growth of positive interpersonal connections. Getting to this point is crucial to recovering from traumatic experiences. People who have experienced trauma can benefit greatly from this type of treatment. This method of therapy is fascinating since it has the potential to aid persons who are having trouble with their mental health in general. This is so because taking this tack can aid in developing positive interpersonal connections between individuals. It’s crucial to one’s psychological well-being that you do this.
The therapy method is effective in helping people enhance their mental health. In general, it’s remarkable to see therapy taken in this way. Many people might benefit from its use, particularly those currently fighting various battles. Several preconceived notions regarding therapeutic interaction have been altered due to these readings. At one time, the importance of the therapeutic alliance between therapist and patient was not fully appreciated. Despite this, the findings of this study show that the quality of the connection is not as crucial as previously believed. The quality of the therapist and patient’s interactions is more important.
The quality of a relationship may be inferred from the quality of its interactions. As a second misconception, it was assumed that the therapist should take the lead role. The RCT results can aid in forming and maintaining more satisfying interpersonal bonds. This involves developing skills like healthy conflict resolution, boundary setting, and open and honest communication.

Module 5:

According to what I’ve read so far for this class, the core of the Motivational Interviewing model is its focus on eliciting “self-motivational statements” from clients and facilitating “behavioral change” among them. The motivational interviewing model aims to increase clients’ motivation for positive change by creating a discrepancy among patients with emotional issues. First, I think of motivational interviewing as more of a way of being with a client than a checklist of steps to take when providing therapy (Miller & Rollnick, 2012). By adopting this role, the therapist assists the client in making positive changes, with unconditional positive regard for the client serving as the foundation of the therapeutic alliance.
And while some people can keep shifting on their own, others will need formal support and treatment the whole way. Therefore, rather than reprimanding patients for their actions, the motivational interviewing model encourages accepting them for who they are and what they can become. This model works best because it allows the therapist and client to build a meaningful connection that aids in the healing process. Clients will gain the confidence they need to make positive changes.
The motivational interviewing approach can help with mental health issues because it shows compassion through techniques like reflective listening. Understanding the significance of another person’s viewpoint through reflective listening is the essence of empathy, which is both a learnable and a specific skill. This helps treat emotional issues because it allows the therapist to focus more on the individual. The therapist also benefits from being able to accept the client alongside their emotions, leading to a more collaborative and accepting therapeutic relationship. Thus, the motivational interviewing approach is useful for dealing with psychological issues.

Module 6:

Brain stimulation involves using electrical currents or pharmaceuticals to alter neural activity. Brain stimulation comes in many forms, including deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Both help treats, though they do so in different ways. Increased stimulation of a specific brain area is one of the goals of brain stimulation, a medical care that employs electrodes to achieve this goal. Pain, distress, and Parkinson’s disease are just some conditions for which it is used as a treatment. Magnetic pulses can also be used to change neuronal signaling in specific parts of the brain (Miniussi et al., 2008).

Many countries now use modalities for conventional adjunct education for young children. If you want to step up the quality of your writing, modalities are the way to go. Although there is an audience for this type of literature, it is not widespread. The Montessori approach and the Waldorf curriculum are two examples of such pedagogical approaches. I support the spread of customized practices to new sectors. Information written down can be used by those who are blind but do not read braille or have access to a computer. Individualized care ranks top among these methods in which each patient is given the undivided attention they need. Stem cell regeneration therapies are one example of an approach to treatment that prioritizes the patient’s individual requirements over the study of established medical paradigms.

Controlling your brain waves using an iPad may be a new way to stimulate your brain. Lumosity is the name of the program used. These tools may be helpful for people who wish to do mental experiments, but we are not persuaded that they can aid in enhancing cognitive function. Because of the skill level required, “Lumosence” brain stimulation is not advised for kids. This strategy merits more investigation as a potential replacement for traditional cognitive training therapies like computerized cognitive training software. Consumers need to know what kinds of products and services are risk-free before they buy them.

Module 7:

Primary Prevention

The couple appears to have the financial and emotional wherewithal to take on the challenges of starting a family and making it thrive.
Secondary Prevention
Early Diagnosis
• Early identification that difficulties exist in the interaction among or b/t family members.
• Identification of a family member’s problems that influence the family as a whole.
• Prompt treatment: The family tries to find the tools to help them be as healthy as possible.
Tertiary Prevention
• After the crisis has passed, the group members see they need assistance and are willing to take it.
• Family members use their strengths to mend broken bonds and restore the family unit.
Reply to Primary Preventative Care:
• The family keeps utilizing methods that promote the development and happiness of all of its members. They build their families by working together to prevent problems from occurring or from worsening in the future.
Primary care, including family nursing, is delivered to people of all ages, from infancy to old age. To better the health of individuals and families, nurses conduct assessments of the population to pinpoint issues and potential dangers, collaborate on creating solutions and see those solutions through to fruition. It is common for family nurses to follow their patients throughout their whole lifespan. This aids in developing trust between the doctor and the patient. A nurse can apply Neuman’s theory when caring for a family.
Prevention is stressed above everything else in the Systems Model. Prevention measures aim to lessen the physical and mental health consequences of exposure to stress and the body’s response to that stress. For primary prevention to be effective, it must occur before the patient experiences any adverse effects from a stressful situation. In this context, “health promotion” and “maintaining well-being” mean the same thing. Provided within the framework of the current system, secondary prevention happens after the patient has reacted to a stressor. Through fortifying internal lines of defense and eradicating the source of stress, harm to the vital core can be avoided. After secondary preventive measures have been taken, tertiary preventive measures are implemented. It aims to boost the patient’s energy levels or decrease the energy required for reconstitution.

Module 8

1= Grandpa with Heart Disease, 2= Grandma, 3= Uncle, 4=Aunt, 5=Father, 6=Me, 7=Sister, 8=Money, 9=Grandma with Diabetes, and 10= Grandpa.
Module 9:
Developed in the 1950s, the Health Belief Model (HBM) continues to be a go-to theory for health and wellness professionals. In the 1950s, the United States Public Health Service saw a rising trend of individuals not taking preventative measures or decreasing the prevalence of illnesses with no outward symptoms. Acceptable health and medical care suggestions have been explained and predicted by the idea. According to the text, the health belief model was initially conceived as health behavior and psychological change model. Still, it was revised to account for mounting evidence from within the health care community that individuals’ sense of agency plays a crucial role in the theory’s understanding (Champion & Skinner, 2008).
The model was initially developed to anticipate chronically sick patients’ behavior after receiving treatment (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). Still, it has expanded to include broader categories of health behavior, such as how healthy people might best protect their well-being. The models’ two halves, sickness prevention and disease treatment were developed out of a need to both stop people from being sick in the first place and help those who are ill recover as quickly as possible. The health community has grown and developed over time, and as a result, the components now include six distinct mental health practices. Perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, perceived advantages, perceived hurdles, cue to action, and self-efficacy are all parts.
One’s estimation of vulnerability to disease or injury is known as “perceived susceptibility” (ex., diabetes, obesity, HIV). Patients’ estimates of their vulnerability to illness and the protective measures they are most likely to take are known as “perceived susceptibility.” The patient’s assessment of their disease’s seriousness is known as “perceived severity.” When a patient’s ailment is untreated, what can we expect to happen to them? This aspect differs based on the individual. Symptoms might be physical, such as pain, or psychological, such as social isolation or job loss. Benefits acceptance and the development of appropriate actions to lessen the threat posed by the patient circumstances make up the third component, perceived benefits. At this point, the individual’s or patient’s values and behavior will shape the course of their journey.

Module 10:

The mental problem is anxiety. Anxiety about your partnerships with your parents, pals, and spouses is what’s meant by the term “attachment anxiety.” In most cases, it may be traced back to formative events. Although the specific reasons for anxious attachment are not yet completely established, they could be connected to traumatic experiences or inconsistent parenting. A child’s development depends on the quality of their relationships with their parents and other caretakers. Having trouble forming meaningful relationships as a child can have far-reaching effects later in life. Such feelings of connection might persist into adulthood and cause problems in romantic partnerships.
Anxiety about one’s connections with others, such as with one’s parents, friends, and romantic partners, is the term “attachment anxiety.” Early experiences are often the source. Although the specific reasons for anxious attachment are not yet wholly established, they could be connected to traumatic events or inconsistent parenting. A child needs close relationships with their parents and other caretakers to thrive (Eastwick, & Finkel, 2008). Poor social connections can cause damage to your mental health that begins in your formative years. In adulthood, these ties may persist and negatively impact romantic partnerships.
Anxious attachment, also called ambivalent or anxious-preoccupied connection, is among the four main attachment patterns identified by psychotherapists. Attachment is a concept developed by psychologist John Bowbly in 1973 after observing the bonds between newborns and their carers. Newborns, it is said, develop attachment behavior patterns out of the blue based on the level of security and safety provided by their caretakers.
Caretakers can teach their infants to trust that their connection needs will be met through their consistent responses of emotional attunement and safety to their cries, clinging, and heightened alertness. This data supports the idea that our attachment styles are set by our early experiences and remain with us throughout our lives. Bowbly argues that there are two types of attachment, secure and insecure. Mary Ainsworth (1978) stated that two other varieties of Bowbly’s insecure attachment might be identified after analyzing the attachment patterns of adults: contemptuous (avoidant) and obsessive.

Module 11:

Brain scanning, also known as neuroimaging, encompasses various methods to create an image of the brain’s anatomy, physiology, or chemical makeup. There are two main types of neuroimaging studies: structural and functional. Some examples of neuroimaging techniques include electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). By examining pictures of the brain recorded using these techniques, quantitative estimates of brain activity may be derived. Using these metrics, we may locate functions in space, track their temporal changes, and evaluate them against various states of mind (Nusslock et al., 2015).
Functional neuroimaging could be used to learn more about how our brains work. Its applications span the fields of psychology, economics, business, and marketing. According to several studies, neuroimaging has helped us better grasp how the brain works. Neuroimaging allows researchers to examine the brain in great detail, including its structure and functions. Regarding the frequency of use, the most common medical imaging procedures are PET and SPECT. Recently, neuroimaging has gained in popularity.
The images they produce are more precise than CT scans, but the process is more time-consuming and costly. To get pictures of the brain, PET scans use radioactive tracers. In contrast to CT and MRI scans, however, they are more time-consuming and costly. Different mental representations of the brain offer their benefits and drawbacks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one method for studying brain activity. One method used to investigate brain structure is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

Module 12:

Psychoeducation can be incorporated into standard care by informing patients about their mental illness, its ailments, and available treatment options (Donker et al., 2009). Care providers can also provide psychoeducation for family members to better inform them about the disease and how they can best treat their loved ones. Individual or group therapy, printed materials, and digital tools are all viable avenues for disseminating psychoeducation. The vital ingredients include:
• Familiarity with the difficulties brought on by the condition.
• Knowledge of the pros and drawbacks of each potential course of therapy
• Recognizing the part that each person plays in their healing and rehabilitation
• Realization of the value of self-care and coping mechanisms
• A grasp of the resources available to help recovery.
On the other hand, the benefits include:
• Knowing the signs and symptoms of a mental illness can help sufferers cope with their condition and spot warning signals before they become severe.
• To better cope with the problem and make educated treatment options, it is important to have a firm grasp on how it affects the individual’s life.
• When patients are aware of the possible risks and advantages of each treatment choice, they are better equipped to make an informed decision about which is best for them.
• Individuals are more likely to take ownership of their therapy and make lasting behavioral adjustments when they have a firm grasp of the part they play in the process.
• Self-care and coping skills are essential for individuals to manage their disease daily and deal with challenging symptoms and situations.
• It is much easier for people to get the treatment they need to recover and stay sober if they know about the services that are accessible to them.


Champion, V. L., & Skinner, C. S. (2008). The health belief model. Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice, 4, 45-65.
Donker, T., Griffiths, K. M., Cuijpers, P., & Christensen, H. (2009). Psychoeducation for depression, anxiety and psychological distress: a meta-analysis. BMC medicine, 7(1), 1-9.
Eastwick, P. W., & Finkel, E. J. (2008). The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety. Journal of personality and social psychology, 95(3), 628.
Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Helping people change. Guilford press.
Miniussi, C., Cappa, S. F., Cohen, L. G., Floel, A., Fregni, F., Nitsche, M. A., … & Walsh, V. (2008). Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation/transcranial direct current stimulation in cognitive neurorehabilitation. Brain stimulation, 1(4), 326-336.
Neuman, B. M., & Fawcett, J. (2011). The Neuman systems model.
Nusslock, R., Young, C. B., Pornpattananangkul, N., & Damme, K. S. (2015). Neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques. R. Cautinand, & SO, Lilienfeld, The encyclopedia of clinical psychology, 1-9.
Shlomowitz, A., & Feher, M. D. (2014). Anxiety associated with self monitoring of capillary blood glucose. British Journal of Diabetes, 14(2), 60-63.
Turner-Halliday, F., Watson, N., Boyer, N. R., Boyd, K. A., & Minnis, H. (2014). The feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy. BMC psychiatry, 14(1), 1-11.
Walker, M., & Rosen, W. B. (Eds.). (2004). How connections heal: Stories from relational-cultural therapy. Guilford Press.
Wollants, G. (2012). Gestalt therapy: Therapy of the situation. Sage.

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